Terms and Definitions

Access and functional needs
Those whose may have additional needs before, during and after an incident in functional areas, including but not limited to: maintaining independence, communication, transportation, supervision, and medical care. 1
Assistive technology
Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability. 2
A condition in which affected individuals are totally blind and cannot see or are legally blind and have central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with maximal correction, or a peripheral field of vision that is so contracted that its widest diameter subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees. 3
Cognitive disability
Trouble remembering, learning new things, concentrating, or making decisions that affect their everyday life. Cognitive impairment ranges from mild to severe. With mild impairment, people may begin to notice changes in cognitive functions, but still be able to do their everyday activities. Severe levels of impairment can lead to losing the ability to understand the meaning or importance of something and the ability to talk or write, resulting in the inability to live independently. 4
Companion animal
An animal that provides comfort for individuals with psychiatric or emotional disabilities.
Partial or complete hearing loss, generally in the severe to profound range, that is present at birth or occurs later in life. Functionally, individuals who are termed “deaf” are unable to hear well enough to rely on their hearing and use it as a means of processing information. 3
Delaware Emergency Notification System (DENS)
This is a registration website for DENS, which is a notification system dedicated to notifying Delaware residents in the event of an emergency in their area. 5
A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of such individual; B) a record of such an impairment; or C) being regarding as having such an impairment. 6
Deadly, destructive, and disruptive events that occur when a hazard (or multiple hazards) interact(s) with human vulnerability. 7
Disaster declaration
A statement that the community or state cannot respond effectively without outside assistance. 7
Disaster housing
A government program that helps people find housing for homes that may be uninhabitable due to unsafe, unsanitary, or insecure conditions. 7
Disaster recovery center
A facility established, in or in close proximity to, the community affected by the disaster where persons can meet face-to-face with represented federal, state, local, and volunteer agencies. 8
Durable medical equipment
Furnished by a supplier or a home health agency that meets the following conditions: 1) can withstand repeated use; 2) effective with respect to items classified as DME after January 1, 2012, and has an expected life of at least 3 years; 3) is primarily and customarily used to serve a medical purpose; 4) generally is not useful to an individual in the absence of an illness or injury; and 5) is appropriate for use in the home.9
An unexpected and usually dangerous situation that calls for immediate action. 10
Emergency declaration
A statement issued by the president for national security situations. 7
Emergency manager
Public servants that help jurisdictions reduce the liabilities that lead to disasters. They also help build community disaster capabilities. 7
Emergency readiness plan
Information collected in one place including people’s names, contact information, and action steps to take in the event of evacuating or sheltering-in-place for emergencies or disasters.
The movement of people away from potential or actual hazards for the purpose of safety. 7
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Agency created in the 1970s by President Jimmy Carter to help coordinate the activities of the government. 7
First responders
Public safety personnel such as police, firefighters, and emergency medical technicians. 7
Go-bag or Go-kit
Items packed in an easily moved or carried backpack or suitcase that you would take with you if you needed to leave your home and evacuate to somewhere else.
Hard of hearing
A mild to moderate hearing loss that may be congenital or occur in the prelingual period but is not of sufficient severity to preclude the development of some spoken language; or which is acquired later in life after speech has been developed. Functionally, individuals who are termed “hard of hearing” have some hearing, are able to use it for communication purposes, and feel reasonably comfortable doing so. 3
A physical, technological, or intentional agent such as an earthquake, industrial explosion, or terrorist bombing. 7
Individual assistance
A relief program for citizens, businesses, and others affected by a disaster. 7
Intellectual disabilities
A condition in which individuals exhibit a range of sub-average intellectual functioning concurrently with adaptive behavior deficits which are manifested during the developmental period and which adversely affect educational performance. (Adaptive behavior is measured by the effectiveness with which or the degree to which the individual is able to meet the standards of personal independence and social responsibility that are expected for the person’s age and cultural group). 3
Activities that attempt to prevent disasters or reduce potential for loss. 7
Mobility impairments
Mobility impairment refers to the inability of a person to use one or more of his/her extremities, or a lack of strength to walk, grasp, or lift objects. The use of a wheelchair, crutches, or a walker may be utilized to aid in mobility. Mobility impairment may be caused by a number of factors, such as disease, an accident, or a congenital disorder and may be the result from neuro-muscular and orthopedic impairments. 11
Personal assistance services
Formal and informal services usually provided by paid personnel, friends, family members and volunteers that enable children and adults to maintain their independence outside of an institutional setting. In a congregate or transitional shelter, when the person that normally provides assistance is not available, personal assistance services are still required in order to maintain the usual level of independence. These services may include: care for oneself such as grooming, eating, bathing, toileting, dressing and undressing, walking, transferring (movement between cot and wheel chair); maintaining health and safety; and assistance taking medications, communicating, or accessing programs and services. 12
A domesticated animal kept for pleasure rather than utility. 10
Physical disabilities
Any of a variety of conditions that may be due to muscular, skeletal or neuromuscular disorders, paralysis or absence of one or more limbs, which impose physical limitations on the individual. 3
Efforts to increase readiness for disaster response and recovery operations. 7
Activity to return the affected community to pre-disaster or, preferably, improved conditions. 7
A list of people sharing similar characteristics who have, usually, volunteered to have their name and information be on file because they may need to be contacted based on the characteristic.
The ability to respond to and recover from a disaster quickly, effectively, and efficiently. 7
Activity in the immediate aftermath of a disaster to protect life and property. 7
Service animals
Any animal trained to provide assistance to a person in daily activities; this animal is not a pet.
Staying wherever you are during an emergency, rather than moving to a different location or place.
Shelter-at-home kit
Items collected and packed in a water proof container in the home that includes things you would need in the event you could not leave your house for several days or weeks. These are supplies that you rely on to keep you healthy and safe during an emergency or disaster.
The location or relocation of evacuees and others to places of refuge; a function that is frequently required in many disasters. 7
During an emergency, taking shelter wherever you are, and not moving to a different location.
Special needs alert program (SNAP)
A pre-hospital notification program for any child in Delaware who has special emergency care needs. 13
Visual impairments
Eye, optic nerve or brain malfunctions which prevent affected individuals from seeing normally. Eye disorders that can lead to visual impairments include retinal degeneration, albinism, cataracts, glaucoma, muscular problems that result in visual disturbances, corneal disorders, diabetic retinopathy, congenital disorders and infection. 3
Proneness to disasters or the inability of individuals, organizations, and communities to prevent them or react effectively. 7

1 2-1-1 San Diego. Retrieved from http://www.211sandiego.org/access-functional-needs

2 20 U.S. Code § 1401 Retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/20/1401

3 The AIRS/211 LA County Taxonomy of Human Services. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.211taxonomy.org/

4 Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2011). Cognitive impairment: A call to action, now! Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/aging/pdf/cognitive_impairment/cogimp_poilicy_final.pdf

5 PrepareDE. Retrieved from http://www.preparede.org/home/stay-informed

6 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, As Amended. Retrieved from http://www.ada.gov/pubs/ada.htm

7 McEntire, D. (2006). Disaster Response and Recovery. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York.

8 National Organization on Disability. (2005). Report on special needs assessment for Katrina evacuees (SNAKE) project. Retrieved from http://www.preventionweb.net/files/9005_katrinasnakereport.pdf

9 National Home Infusion Association. (2011, November 10). Retrieved from http://www.nhia.org/members/documents/20111110CMSRuleonDMEDefnandCBPgm.pdf

10 Merriam Webster Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/

11 The ACCESS Project. Department of Occupational Therapy, Colorado State University. Retrieved from http://accessproject.colostate.edu/disability/modules/MI/tut_MI.php

12 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Recovery Fact Sheet 9580.210: Personal Assistance Services in Shelters. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1858-25045-8226/personal_assistance_services_fact_sheet_rp9580_210.pdf

13 Special Needs Emergency Alert Program (SNAP). (2013, April 19). Retrieved from http://www.dhss.delaware.gov/dph/ems/emscsnap.html